swords heat treatment and quenching

Country: China Category: Culture By: yayasilver
swords heat treatment and quenching
A sword is more then a piece of shaped metal, without proper hardening throught different heat treating. quenching and tempering, steel will not be hardened and will not be hardened and will not reach it full potential.The highest quality steel will be no harder or better than normal steel without undergoing the mentioned procedures.


After the blade has been shaped, the sword would be quenched. Traditionally there were a variety of methods used to quench a sword: horse urine, salty water, pure water, believed to produce better results.

Today we quench our swords in either water or oil. Quenching a sword in water is more difficult to control, but yields better results. The defect rate is about five times higher than oil quenching, which is much more stable and easier to control. Water quenching produces a tougher edge which can also be hardened further more using clay (see below). Blades quenched in oil are still considerably hardened and do have superior flexibility compared to a water quenched blade.

The more rapidly a blade cools down, the harder it becomes. Thus, when a hot blade enters the water, the water also gains heat and the blade will cool more gradually, Therefore, the first part of the blade that enter the water will be the hardest.

Therefore, the technique of quenching was also very important. Dao (sabers or single edged weapons) were comparatively easier to quench than double edged blades, they would simply enter the water edge and tip first, leaving the spine or back and lower section of the blade softer. This was also done for practical reasons, as the ‘softer’ sections were better for absorbing shock and impact and employed for defensive measures.

Jian (or any other double edged blades) were more difficult to quench effectively, as the hardness was required evenly on both edges. To quench a jian, the sword maker would have to employ what was known as the ‘swallow method’, where the sword enters flat and tip first at an angle, dips and resurfaces, resembling the way s swallow flies.

If a blade has any flaws from forging (air bubbles, ash), it will break immediately during the quenching process.


After quenching, the sword will be quite tough and brittle, with little flexibility. To overcome this, the blade would undergo a tempering process. The blade would be reheated to a certain temperature degree then allowed to cool naturally. The blade would be slightly less tough afterward but have a greater degree of flexibility – the art would be to perfectly balance the blade for toughness, sharpness and flexibility.

Clay Hardening

Before being quenched, a special clay mixture can be applied onto the blade to harden the edge and obtain different hardness on the blade. The clay mixture was a special recipe and considered a crucial trade secret, guarded protectively by sword making masters.

It would contain such things as feathers, powdered bones, grass, etc. and would be applied to the edge of the blade before being quenched. During quenching, a chemical reaction between the clay mixture and the hot steel occurs during the sudden temperature drop and carbon is fed into the blade in high amounts, creating an extremely tough edge. A clay hardened blade can only be quenched in water, thus increasing the defect rate even more.

Another way for clay tempering is to apply clay along the blade but let edge exposed. Thus, while quenching the blade into water, the uncovered edge will cool down suddenly, but the rest of blade will cool down slowly. Such differential temperature change results in the different hardness of the blade. So the edge is tough enough to cut, where the back of blade is soft/flexible enough to absorb the impact during cutting. Such quenching process usually will leave beautiful wavy tempered line on the blade, as known as “homon” in Japanese swords term.


In traditional Chinese sword forging, the term “Cold- forging” means forging steel blade without pre-heating. It is done by hammering blade evenly into thinner piece to increase density. During the cold-forging process, the blade will naturally heat up as the metal elements are forced to restructure. Cold-forge does NOT equal simply using hammer to “reshape” or adjust the blade shape, in fact, real cold forging requires high level of skill in order to optimize and enhance to overall strength of blade. Cold-forging is normally conducted before final quench process.

Tang construction

While it is common to find swords which have a rat tail tang (Two pieces welded together), a thin tang or even no tang at all, all of our swords at Enlightenment Swords have a thick tang running from the blade to the full length of the handle.

During the forging process for each sword, the tang would be pushed into the handle while it was still hot to ‘meld’ it into the wood, ensuring it would remain firmly fixed in position.

Considering it would have to be thick enough (a thin tang is simply not strong enough), a hole would be punched through the tang and a strengthened bamboo pin would be pressed through to ensure maximum strength.

Traditional Chinese Method of Sharpening

The traditional Chinese manner of sharpening swords was to first divide the blade into three sections; a root (close to the hilt), middle and tip section. The root is edged but not sharpened, as this part of the sword was used for defensive measures and maintaining the blade’s overall strength.

The middle section was not extremely sharp, but still sharp enough to cut and retain the blade’s strength.

The tip section however, was kept razor sharp as it was considered the ‘business end’ of the weapon.

There is a Chinese maxim which pertains to swords and their sharpness; ‘three feet long, one inch kills’.

Not only would the sword would be sharpened to achieve different levels of sharpness but the points at which the sharpness changed would be done so subtly that the difference could not normally be seen.

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It's always a pleasure to hear from someone with exerptise.
December 05, 2016



Too many coimmplents too little space, thanks!
December 05, 2016



You probably could be very hluefpl to customers creating target market research on our site.[]Karen Marcus Reply:February 16th, 2010 at 5:06 pmThanks, David. I looked at your site, seems like a great service. I'd love to learn more.[]
November 05, 2014



I didn't understand the coicnudnlg part of your article, could you please explain it more?[]Karen Marcus Reply:April 2nd, 2010 at 12:42 pmThanks for the question. As someone on the outside looking in, you have a similar perspective to the people who will likely be reading the document. So, the questions you have are probably similar to theirs. When you ask those questions, you gain understanding that will help your writing be more targeted to the audience. If you are close to the subject, on the other hand, try to put yourself in your reader's shoes and imagine what questions they may have about your topic. Hope that helps.[]
November 05, 2014
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